PERFORMANCE REVIEW TOPICS High School NATIONAL YEAR 2017 Subject: ENGLISH – PROJECT NUMBER 05


PERFORMANCE REVIEW TOPICS High School NATIONAL YEAR 2017 Subject: ENGLISH – PROJECT NUMBER 05 whith key

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress in each of the following questions.

Question 1. A. included                      B. wanted                    C. decided                   D. noticed

Question 2. A. allow                           B. tomorrow                C. slowly                     D. below



Mark A,B,C or D to indicate the word whose main stress differs from the rest.

Question 3. A. struggle                          B. survive                             C. enlarge                    D. occur

Question 4. A. reliable                           B. conventional                    C. preservative            D. intellectual

Identify the underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be corrected

Question 5: These exercises look easy, but they are very relatively difficult for us.

A                     B                                 C                         D

Question 6: As the old one, this new copier can perform its functions in half the time

A                                                       B                  C                     D

Question 7: The assumption that smoking has bad effects on our health have been proved.

A                                   B     C                               D

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the most suitable response to complete each of the following questions

Question 8: Kay: “I wouldn’t do that if I were you.”                                              John: “_______”

A. Wouldn’t you? Why? B. Would you, really?     C. I’d rather you didn’t.     D. It’s out of the question.

Question 9: Lucy: “You look really nice in that red sweater!”        Sue : “_______”

A. Don’t mention it.      B. How dare you?             C. I’m afraid so.                 D. Thank you.

Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) SIMILAR in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.

Question 10: I hope to have the privilege of working with them again.

A. honor                      B. advantage               C. favor                       D. right

Question 11: Everything was in a thorough mess.

A. utter                        B. full                          C. complete                 D. appalling

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is OPPOSITE meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions.

Question 12: His extravagant ideas were never brought to fruition.

A. impressive              B. exaggerated                        C. unacceptable           D. practical

Question 13: This shouldn’t be too taxing for you.

A. comfortable                        B. demanding              C. easy                                    D. relaxing

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions

Question 14: Sam speaks Chinese well and his Japanese is good, too.

A. Sam is good at either Chinese or Japanese.            B. Not only Chinese but also Japanese Sam is good at.

C. Not only does Sam speak Chinese but also Japanese.

D. Sam not only speaks Chinese well but also is good at Japanese.

Question 15: It’s a bad line. Do you want me to give you a ring later?

A. Can I call you later?                                   B. I would like to give you a ring as a present.

C. Would you like to become my wife?          D. Can I give the ring back to you later?

Question 16: Had she read the reference books, she would have been able to finish the test.

A. If she had read the reference books, she could finish the test.

B. Not having read the reference books, she couldn’t finish the test.

C. Although she didn’t read the reference books, she was able to finish the test.

D. Because she read the reference books, she was able to finish the test.

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences in the following questions

Question 17: We’d better leave them a note. It’s possible they’ll arrive later.

A. If they arrive late, we’d better leave them a note.

B. We’d better leave them a note as they possibly arrive later.

C. They’ll probably arrive later so that we’d better leave them a note.

D. We’d better leave them a note in case they arrive later.

Question 18: Women still cover their heads in some countries. They did so in the past.

A. In the past, women cover their heads but they do so today in some countries.

B. Women still cover their heads in some countries as they did in th past.

C. Women still cover their heads in some countries similar to what they did so in the past.

D. Women still cover their heads in some countries as they did so in the past.

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer in each of the following questions.

Question 19: Deborah is going to take extra lessons to ___ what she missed when she was away.

A. catch up on                         B. put up with                         C. cut down on                        D. take up with

Question 20: I am sorry I have no time at present to _____ detail of our plan.

A. bring in                      B. come in                         C. take into                        D. go into

Question 21: In spite of her abilities, Laura has been _____ overlooked for promotion.

A. repetitive                    B. repeatedly                     C. repetition                       D. repeat

Question 22: The criminal knows the ________ of successful robberies.

A. trash and treasure    B. part and parcel        C. ins and outs                         D. close all

Question 23: Don’t ________ the kettle; it’s still hot.

A. touch                      B. feel                          C. look                                    D. taste

Question 24: Policemen are sometimes on ________ at night.

A. force                       B. alert                                     C. cover                       D. patrol

Question 25: George won five medals at the competition. His parents ________ very proud of him.

A. can’t be                   B. can’t have               C. must have been       D. could have been

Question 26: We bought some ________.   A. German lovely old glasses     C. German old lovely glasses

B. lovely old German glasses D. old lovely German glasses

Question 27: This is the third time James ________ the volunteer program to the village.

A. joins                                   B. joined                     C. has joined               D. has been joining

Question 28:  The higher the content of carbon dioxide in the air is,_____.

A. the more heat it retains B. the heat it retains more C. it retains the more heat D. more heat it retains

Question 29: The pool should not be made so deep _____ small children can be safe there.

A. so as to                      B. though                          C. if                                   D. so that

Question 30: Standing on the tip of the cape, _____.

A. people have seen a lighthouse far away              B. a lighthouse can see from the distance

C. we can see the lighthouse in the distance             D. lies a lighthouse in the middle of the sea

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to choose the word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks.

   In “Cerealizing America”, Scott Bruce and Bill Crawford remark that the cereal industry uses 816 million pounds of sugar per year. Americans buy 2.7 billion packages of breakfast cereal each year. If (31)___ end to end, the empty cereal boxes from one year’s consumption would stretch to the moon and back. One point three (1.3) million advertisements for cereal are broadcast on American television every year at a(n) (32) ___ of $762 million for airtime. Only automobile manufacturers spend more money on television advertising than the makers of breakfast cereal.

(33) ___ of the boxed cereals found in supermarkets contain large amounts of sugar and some contain more than 50% sugar. Cereal manufacturers are very clever in their marketing, making many cereals appear much healthier than they really are by “fortifying” them with vitamins and minerals. Oh, lovely – you now have vitamin-fortified sugar!

Before you eat any cereal, read the ingredient list and see how (34) ___ sugar appears on the ingredient list. Then check the “Nutrition facts” panel.

There are actually only a small handful of national commercially-branded cereals that are made (35) ___ whole grains and are sugar-free.

From “Foods That Burn Fat, Foods That Turn to Fat” by Tom Ventulo

Question 31:    A. to lay                         B. laying                           C. lay                        D. laid

Question 32: A. charge                          B. everage                        C. cost                      D. expense

Question 33: A. Most                             B. Mostly                         C. Almost                 D. Furthermost

Question 34: A. tall                                B. large                             C. high                     D. many

Question 35: A. by                               B. from                             C. at                          D. in

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

New surveys suggest that the technological tools we use to make our lives easier are killing our leisure time. We are working longer hours, taking fewer and shorter vacations (and when we do go away, we take our cell phones, PDAs, and laptops along). And, we are more stressed than ever as increased use of e-mail, voice mail, cell phones, and the Internet is destroying any idea of privacy and leisure.

Since the Industrial Revolution, people have assumed that new labor-saving devices would free them from the burdens of the workplace and give them more time to grow intellectually, creatively, and socially – exploring the arts, keeping up with current events, spending more time with friends and family, and even just ‘goofing off’.

But here we are at the start of the 21st century, enjoying one of the greatest technological boom times in human history, and nothing could be further from the truth. The very tools that were supposed to liberate us have bound us to our work and study in ways that were inconceivable just a few years ago. It would seem that technology almost never does what we expect.

In ‘the old days’, the lines between work and leisure time were markedly clearer. People left their offices at a predictable time, were often completely disconnected from and out of touch with their jobs as they traveled to and from work, and were off-duty once they were home. That is no longer true. In today’s highly competitive job market, employers demand increased productivity, expecting workers to put in longer hours and to keep in touch almost constantly via fax, cell phones, e-mail, or other communications devices. As a result, employees feel the need to check in on what is going on at the office, even on days off. They feel pressured to work after hours just to catch up on everything they have to do. Workers work harder and longer, change their work tasks more frequently, and have more and more reasons to worry about job security.

Bosses, colleagues, family members, lovers, and friends expect instant responses to voice mail and e-mail messages. Even college students have become bound to their desks by an environment in which faculty, friends, and other members of the college community increasingly do their work online. Studies of time spent on instant messaging services would probably show staggering use.

This is not what technology was supposed to be doing for us. New technologies, from genetic research to the Internet, offer all sorts of benefits and opportunities. But, when new tools make life more difficult and stressful rather than easier and more meaningful – and we are, as a society, barely conscious of it – then something has gone seriously awry, both with our expectations for technology and our understanding of how it should benefit us.

From “Summit 1” by Joan Saslow & Allen Ascher

Question 36: According to the first three paragraphs, technological tools that were designed to make our lives easier______.

A. have brought us complete happiness                B. have fully met our expectations

C. have not interfered with our privacy                 D. have turned out to do us more harm than good

Question 37: Which of the following is NOT true about technological tools, according to new surveys?

A. They make our life more stressful.                   B. They bring more leisure to our life.

C. They are used even during vacations.               D. They are being increasingly used.

Question 38: The word “inconceivable” in the passage is closest in meaning to”______”.

A. unforgettable          B. unimaginable                C. predictable                       D. foreseeable

Question 39: It can be inferred from the fourth paragraph that______.

A. it is compulsory that employees go to the office, even on days off

B. employees have more freedom to decide what time they start and finish work

C. employers are more demanding and have efficient means to monitor employees

D. life is more relaxing with cell phones and other technological devices

Question 40: The word “They” in the fourth paragraph refers to______.

A. employers               B. employees                     C. workers                            D. tasks

Question 41: This passage has probably been taken from______.

A. a science review     B. a political journal          C. an advertisement              D. a fashion magazine

Question 42: Which of the following could best serve as the title of the passage?

A. Expectations and Plain Reality                         B. Benefits of Technology

C. Research on the Roles of Computers                D. Changes at the Workplace

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Very few people, groups, or governments oppose globalization in its entirety. Instead, critics of globalization believe aspects of the way globalization operates should be changed. The debate over globalization is about what the best rules are for governing the global economy so that its advantages can grow while its problems can be solved.

On one side of this debate are those who stress the benefits of removing barriers to international trade and investment, allowing capital to be allocated more efficiently and giving consumers greater freedom of choice. With free-market globalization, investment funds can move unimpeded from the rich countries to the developing countries. Consumers can benefit from cheaper products because reduced taxes make goods produced at low cost from faraway places cheaper to buy. Producers of goods gain by selling to a wider market. More competition keeps sellers on their toes and allows ideas and new technology to spread and benefit others.

On the other side of the debate are critics who see neo-liberal policies as producing greater poverty, inequality, social conflict, cultural destruction, and environmental damage. They say that the most developed nations – the United States, Germany, and Japan – succeeded not because of free trade but because of protectionism and subsidies. They argue that the more recently successful economies of South Korea, Taiwan, and China all had strong state-led development strategies that did not follow neo-liberalism. These critics think that government encouragement of “infant industries” – that is, industries that are just beginning to develop – enables a country to become internationally competitive.

Furthermore, those who criticize the Washington Consensus suggest that the inflow and outflow of money from speculative investors must be limited to prevent bubbles. These bubbles are characterized by the rapid inflow of foreign funds that bid up domestic stock markets and property values. When the economy cannot sustain such expectation, the bubbles burst as investors panic and pull their money out of the country.

Protests by what is called the anti-globalization movement are seldom directed against globalization itself but rather against abuses that harm the rights of workers and the environment. The question raised by nongovernmental organizations and protesters at WTO and IMF gatherings is whether globalization will result in a rise of living standards or a race to the bottom as competition takes the form of lowering living standards and undermining environmental regulations.

One of the key problems of the 21st century will be determining to what extent markets should be regulated to promote fair competition, honest dealing, and fair distribution of public goods on a global scale.

From “Globalization” by Tabb, William K., Microsoft ® Student 2009 [DVD]

Question 43:    It is stated in the passage that ______.

A. the protests of globalization are directed against globalization itself

B. the United States, Germany, and Japan succeeded in helping infant industries

C. suppoters of globalization stress the benefits of removing trade barriers

D. critics of globalization say that the successful economies are all in Asia

Question 44:    Supporters of free-market globalization point out that ______.

A. consumers can benefit from cheaper products

B.there will be less competition among producers

C. taxes that are paid on goods will be increased

D. investment will be allocated only to rich countries

Question 45: The word “allocated” in the passage mostly means “_____”.

A. removed                 B. solved                           C. offered                             D. distributed

Question 46: The phrase “keeps sellers on their toes” in the passage mostly means “_____”.

A. makes sellers responsive to any changes          B. allows sellers to stand on their own feet

C. forces sellers to go bare-footed                         D. prevents sellers from selling new products

Question 47: According to critics of globalization, several developed countries have become rich because of ____.

A. their neo-liberal policies                                   B. their help to developing countries

C. their prevention of bubbles                               D. their protectionism and subsidies

Question 48: Infant industries mentioned in the passage are _____.

A. successful economies   B. young companies     C. development strategies     D. young industries

Question 49: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A. Critics believe the way globalization operates should be changed.

B. The anti-globalization movement was set up to end globalization.

C. Some Asian countries had strong state-led economic strategies.

D. Hardly anyone disapproves of globalization in its entirety.

Question 50: The debate over globalization is about how_____.

A. to use neo-liberal policies for the benefit of the rich countries

C. to spread ideas and strategies for globalization

B. to govern the global economy for the benefit of the community

D. to terminate globalization in its entirely

KEY

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs from the rest in the position of the main stress in each of the following questions.

Question 1. A. included                      B. wanted                    C. decided                   D. noticed

Question 2. A. allow                          B. tomorrow                C. slowly                     D. below

Mark A,B,C or D to indicate the word whose main stress differs from the rest.

Question 3. A. struggle                         B. survive                             C. enlarge                    D. occur

Question 4. A. reliable                           B. conventional                    C. preservative            D. intellectual

Identify the underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be corrected

Question 5: These exercises look easy, but they are very relatively difficult for us.

A                     B                                 C                         D

Question 6: As the old one, this new copier can perform its functions in half the time

A                                                         B           C                     D

Question 7: The assumption that smoking has bad effects on our health have been proved.

A                                   B     C                               D

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the most suitable response to complete each of the following questions

Question 8: Kay: “I wouldn’t do that if I were you.”                                             John: “_______”

A. Wouldn’t you? Why? B. Would you, really?     C. I’d rather you didn’t.     D. It’s out of the question.

Question 9: Lucy: “You look really nice in that red sweater!”       Sue : “_______”

A. Don’t mention it.      B. How dare you?             C. I’m afraid so.                 D. Thank you.

Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) SIMILAR in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.

Question 10: I hope to have the privilege of working with them again.

A. honor                     B. advantage               C. favor                       D. right

Question 11: Everything was in a thorough mess.

A. utter                        B. full                          C. complete                 D. appalling

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase that is OPPOSITE meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions.

Question 12: His extravagant ideas were never brought to fruition.

A. impressive              B. exaggerated                        C. unacceptable           D. practical

Question 13: This shouldn’t be too taxing for you.

A. comfortable                        B. demanding              C. easy                                    D. relaxing

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is closest in meaning to each of the following questions

Question 14: Sam speaks Chinese well and his Japanese is good, too.

A. Sam is good at either Chinese or Japanese.

B. Not only Chinese but also Japanese Sam is good at.

C. Not only does Sam speak Chinese but also Japanese.

D. Sam not only speaks Chinese well but also is good at Japanese.

Question 15: It’s a bad line. Do you want me to give you a ring later?

A. Can I call you later?                                   B. I would like to give you a ring as a present.

C. Would you like to become my wife?          D. Can I give the ring back to you later?

Question 16: Had she read the reference books, she would have been able to finish the test.

A. If she had read the reference books, she could finish the test.

B. Not having read the reference books, she couldn’t finish the test.

C. Although she didn’t read the reference books, she was able to finish the test.

D. Because she read the reference books, she was able to finish the test.

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best combines each pair of sentences in the following questions

Question 17: We’d better leave them a note. It’s possible they’ll arrive later.

A. If they arrive late, we’d better leave them a note.

B. We’d better leave them a note as they possibly arrive later.

C. They’ll probably arrive later so that we’d better leave them a note.

D. We’d better leave them a note in case they arrive later.

Question 18: Women still cover their heads in some countries. They did so in the past.

A. In the past, women cover their heads but they do so today in some countries.

B. Women still cover their heads in some countries as they did in th past.

C. Women still cover their heads in some countries similar to what they did so in the past.

D. Women still cover their heads in some countries as they did so in the past.

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D to indicate the correct answer in each of the following questions.

Question 19: Deborah is going to take extra lessons to ___ what she missed when she was away.

A. catch up on                        B. put up with                         C. cut down on                        D. take up with

Question 20: I am sorry I have no time at present to _____ detail of our plan.

A. bring in                      B. come in                         C. take into                        D. go into

Question 21: In spite of her abilities, Laura has been _____ overlooked for promotion.

A. repetitive                    B. repeatedly                     C. repetition                       D. repeat

Question 22: The criminal knows the ________ of successful robberies.

A. trash and treasure    B. part and parcel        C. ins and outs                        D. close all

Question 23: Don’t ________ the kettle; it’s still hot.

A. touch                      B. feel                          C. look                                    D. taste

Question 24: Policemen are sometimes on ________ at night.

A. force                       B. alert                                     C. cover                       D. patrol

Question 25: George won five medals at the competition. His parents ________ very proud of him.

A. can’t be                   B. can’t have               C. must have been      D. could have been

Question 26: We bought some ________.   A. German lovely old glasses     C. German old lovely glasses

B. lovely old German glasses             D. old lovely German glasses

Question 27: This is the third time James ________ the volunteer program to the village.

A. joins                                   B. joined                     C. has joined               D. has been joining

Question 28:  The higher the content of carbon dioxide in the air is,_____.

A. the more heat it retains B. the heat it retains more C. it retains the more heat       D. more heat it retains

Question 29: The pool should not be made so deep _____ small children can be safe there.

A. so as to                      B. though                          C. if                                   D. so that

Question 30: Standing on the tip of the cape, _____.

A. people have seen a lighthouse far away              B. a lighthouse can see from the distance

C. we can see the lighthouse in the distance          D. lies a lighthouse in the middle of the sea

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to choose the word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks from 17 to 26.

   In “Cerealizing America”, Scott Bruce and Bill Crawford remark that the cereal industry uses 816 million pounds of sugar per year. Americans buy 2.7 billion packages of breakfast cereal each year. If (31)___ end to end, the empty cereal boxes from one year’s consumption would stretch to the moon and back. One point three (1.3) million advertisements for cereal are broadcast on American television every year at a(n) (32) ___ of $762 million for airtime. Only automobile manufacturers spend more money on television advertising than the makers of breakfast cereal.

(33) ___ of the boxed cereals found in supermarkets contain large amounts of sugar and some contain more than 50% sugar. Cereal manufacturers are very clever in their marketing, making many cereals appear much healthier than they really are by “fortifying” them with vitamins and minerals. Oh, lovely – you now have vitamin-fortified sugar!

Before you eat any cereal, read the ingredient list and see how (34) ___ sugar appears on the ingredient list. Then check the “Nutrition facts” panel.

There are actually only a small handful of national commercially-branded cereals that are made (35) ___ whole grains and are sugar-free.

From “Foods That Burn Fat, Foods That Turn to Fat” by Tom Ventulo

Question 31:   A. to lay                         B. laying                           C. lay                        D. laid

Question 32: A. charge                         B. everage                        C. cost                      D. expense

Question 33: A. Most                            B. Mostly                         C. Almost                 D. Furthermost

Question 34: A. tall                               B. large                             C. high                     D. many

Question 35: A. by                              B. from                             C. at                          D. in

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 27 to 36.

New surveys suggest that the technological tools we use to make our lives easier are killing our leisure time. We are working longer hours, taking fewer and shorter vacations (and when we do go away, we take our cell phones, PDAs, and laptops along). And, we are more stressed than ever as increased use of e-mail, voice mail, cell phones, and the Internet is destroying any idea of privacy and leisure.

Since the Industrial Revolution, people have assumed that new labor-saving devices would free them from the burdens of the workplace and give them more time to grow intellectually, creatively, and socially – exploring the arts, keeping up with current events, spending more time with friends and family, and even just ‘goofing off’.

But here we are at the start of the 21st century, enjoying one of the greatest technological boom times in human history, and nothing could be further from the truth. The very tools that were supposed to liberate us have bound us to our work and study in ways that were inconceivable just a few years ago. It would seem that technology almost never does what we expect.

In ‘the old days’, the lines between work and leisure time were markedly clearer. People left their offices at a predictable time, were often completely disconnected from and out of touch with their jobs as they traveled to and from work, and were off-duty once they were home. That is no longer true. In today’s highly competitive job market, employers demand increased productivity, expecting workers to put in longer hours and to keep in touch almost constantly via fax, cell phones, e-mail, or other communications devices. As a result, employees feel the need to check in on what is going on at the office, even on days off. They feel pressured to work after hours just to catch up on everything they have to do. Workers work harder and longer, change their work tasks more frequently, and have more and more reasons to worry about job security.

Bosses, colleagues, family members, lovers, and friends expect instant responses to voice mail and e-mail messages. Even college students have become bound to their desks by an environment in which faculty, friends, and other members of the college community increasingly do their work online. Studies of time spent on instant messaging services would probably show staggering use.

This is not what technology was supposed to be doing for us. New technologies, from genetic research to the Internet, offer all sorts of benefits and opportunities. But, when new tools make life more difficult and stressful rather than easier and more meaningful – and we are, as a society, barely conscious of it – then something has gone seriously awry, both with our expectations for technology and our understanding of how it should benefit us.

From “Summit 1” by Joan Saslow & Allen Ascher

Question 36: According to the first three paragraphs, technological tools that were designed to make our lives easier______.

A. have brought us complete happiness                B. have fully met our expectations

C. have not interfered with our privacy                 D. have turned out to do us more harm than good

Question 37: Which of the following is NOT true about technological tools, according to new surveys?

A. They make our life more stressful.                   B. They bring more leisure to our life.

C. They are used even during vacations.               D. They are being increasingly used.

Question 38: The word “inconceivable” in the passage is closest in meaning to”______”.

A. unforgettable          B. unimaginable               C. predictable                       D. foreseeable

Question 39: It can be inferred from the fourth paragraph that______.

A. it is compulsory that employees go to the office, even on days off

B. employees have more freedom to decide what time they start and finish work

      C. employers are more demanding and have efficient means to monitor employees

D. life is more relaxing with cell phones and other technological devices

Question 40: The word “They” in the fourth paragraph refers to______.

A. employers               B. employees                     C. workers                            D. tasks

Question 41: This passage has probably been taken from______.

A. a science review     B. a political journal          C. an advertisement              D. a fashion magazine

Question 42: Which of the following could best serve as the title of the passage?

A. Expectations and Plain Reality                       B. Benefits of Technology

C. Research on the Roles of Computers                D. Changes at the Workplace

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 67 to 76.

Very few people, groups, or governments oppose globalization in its entirety. Instead, critics of globalization believe aspects of the way globalization operates should be changed. The debate over globalization is about what the best rules are for governing the global economy so that its advantages can grow while its problems can be solved.

On one side of this debate are those who stress the benefits of removing barriers to international trade and investment, allowing capital to be allocated more efficiently and giving consumers greater freedom of choice. With free-market globalization, investment funds can move unimpeded from the rich countries to the developing countries. Consumers can benefit from cheaper products because reduced taxes make goods produced at low cost from faraway places cheaper to buy. Producers of goods gain by selling to a wider market. More competition keeps sellers on their toes and allows ideas and new technology to spread and benefit others.

On the other side of the debate are critics who see neo-liberal policies as producing greater poverty, inequality, social conflict, cultural destruction, and environmental damage. They say that the most developed nations – the United States, Germany, and Japan – succeeded not because of free trade but because of protectionism and subsidies. They argue that the more recently successful economies of South Korea, Taiwan, and China all had strong state-led development strategies that did not follow neo-liberalism. These critics think that government encouragement of “infant industries” – that is, industries that are just beginning to develop – enables a country to become internationally competitive.

Furthermore, those who criticize the Washington Consensus suggest that the inflow and outflow of money from speculative investors must be limited to prevent bubbles. These bubbles are characterized by the rapid inflow of foreign funds that bid up domestic stock markets and property values. When the economy cannot sustain such expectation, the bubbles burst as investors panic and pull their money out of the country.

Protests by what is called the anti-globalization movement are seldom directed against globalization itself but rather against abuses that harm the rights of workers and the environment. The question raised by nongovernmental organizations and protesters at WTO and IMF gatherings is whether globalization will result in a rise of living standards or a race to the bottom as competition takes the form of lowering living standards and undermining environmental regulations.

One of the key problems of the 21st century will be determining to what extent markets should be regulated to promote fair competition, honest dealing, and fair distribution of public goods on a global scale.

From “Globalization” by Tabb, William K., Microsoft ® Student 2009 [DVD]

Question 43:   It is stated in the passage that ______.

A. the protests of globalization are directed against globalization itself

B. the United States, Germany, and Japan succeeded in helping infant industries

                        C. suppoters of globalization stress the benefits of removing trade barriers

D. critics of globalization say that the successful economies are all in Asia

Question 44:   Supporters of free-market globalization point out that ______.

A. consumers can benefit from cheaper products

B.there will be less competition among producers

C. taxes that are paid on goods will be increased

D. investment will be allocated only to rich countries

Question 45: The word “allocated” in the passage mostly means “_____”.

A. removed                 B. solved                           C. offered                             D. distributed

Question 46: The phrase “keeps sellers on their toes” in the passage mostly means “_____”.

A. makes sellers responsive to any changes        B. allows sellers to stand on their own feet

C. forces sellers to go bare-footed                         D. prevents sellers from selling new products

Question 47: According to critics of globalization, several developed countries have become rich because of ____.

A. their neo-liberal policies                                   B. their help to developing countries

C. their prevention of bubbles                               D. their protectionism and subsidies

Question 48: Infant industries mentioned in the passage are _____.

A. successful economies   B. young companies     C. development strategies     D. young industries

Question 49: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A. Critics believe the way globalization operates should be changed.

      B. The anti-globalization movement was set up to end globalization.

C. Some Asian countries had strong state-led economic strategies.

D. Hardly anyone disapproves of globalization in its entirety.

Question 50: The debate over globalization is about how_____.

A. to use neo-liberal policies for the benefit of the rich countries

C. to spread ideas and strategies for globalization

B. to govern the global economy for the benefit of the community

D. to terminate globalization in its entirely


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